Prior to 1990, the water sector was seriously fragmented resulting poor service delivery and no cost recovery.

Responsibility for the development and management of rural water supply and sanitation facilities has been delegated by the Waterboard to the Department of Health (DOH) until 1990. DOH undertakes the implementation of rural water supply and sanitation projects through the Environmental Health Section (EHS) of provincial governments. DOH undertakes policy-making, planning and staff training at the national level, while the EHS In each province takes charge of planning, design, construction and, to a certain extent, maintenance of the systems. Other
organizations Involved In rural water supply Include: the Local Government Councils, which are responsible for the operation and maintenance of water supply schemes at the local level; and the Local Government Section of DOW, which provides assistance in the design and construction of facilities, and in the training of staff who will be involved In the construction of rural water supply systems.